EPA Announces Registration of Ten Pesticides for Use on Hemp; Still No Products Registered for Use on Cannabis

 On December 19, 2019, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced the addition of hemp as a registered use for ten registered pesticides held by three registrants: Agro Logistic Systems, Marrone Bio Innovations and Hawthorne Hydroponics. These ten products, which include nine biopesticides and one conventional product, join several others already registered for use on hemp.

The ten include the Registered biopesticides are:

Agro Logistic Systems: 

            EPA registration number: 70310-5; active ingredients: azadirachtin and neem oil. Product type: Insecticide, miticide, fungicide and nematicide.

EPA registration number: 70310-7; active ingredients: Azadirachtin and neem oil. Product type: Insecticide, miticide, fungicide and nematicide.

EPA registration number: 70310-8; active ingredients: Azadirachtin and neem oil. Product type: Insecticide, miticide, fungicide and nematicide.

EPA registration number: 70310-11; active ingredient: Neem oil. Product type: Insecticide, miticide and fungicide.

Marrone Bio Innovations :

EPA registration number: 84059-3; active ingredient: Extract of Reynoutria           sachalinensis. Product type: Fungicide and fungistat.

EPA registration number: 84059-28; active ingredient: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain F727. Product type: Fungicide.

Hawthorne Hydroponics, dba General Hydroponics:

EPA registration number: 91865-1; active ingredients: Soybean oil, garlic oil, and Capsicum Oleoresin extract. Product type: Insecticide and repellent.

EPA registration number: 91865-3; active ingredient: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747. Product type: Fungicide and bactericide.

EPA registration number: 91865-4; active ingredient: Azadirachtin. Product type: Insect growth regulator and repellent.

The registered conventional pesticide product is:

Hawthorne Hydroponics, dba General Hydroponics.     

EPA registration number: 91865-2; active ingredient: Potassium salts of fatty acids. Product type: Insecticide, fungicide and miticide.

When the hemp amendments were being considered, EPA had undertaken the unusual step of inviting public comment, which is required only for new active ingredients. With the rapidly growing number of acres planted in hemp as a result of the 2018 Farm Bill,  additional registrants can be expected to seek to add hemp as a target crop, although such future amendments are not likely to be the subject of public notice. In the meantime, however, EPA continues to assert that no pesticides are legal for use on cannabis being grown under state medical and adult use programs.

New York to Adminstratively Eliminate All Uses of Chlorpyrifos [Updated]

Despite its registration having been upheld by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), the insecticide chlorpyrifos continues to face multiple challenges to its continued use. The continued EPA registration continues to be challenged in Court by a collection of states, while California has secured the agreement of major registrants to administratively cancel all registration. Now the New York Governor has directed the Department of Environmental Conservation (“NYSDEC”) to administratively phase out most uses of the ingredient.

In New York, the legislature passed a bill which would in three stages eliminate all uses of chlorpyrifos by December 1, 2021. See S. 5343; A-2477B. Aerial application would be prohibited as of January 1, 2020, following which all uses except applications to apple tree trunks would end as of January 1, 2021. The apple tree use would then end December 1, 2021. In a somewhat contradictory move, rather than signing the legislation, the Governor vetoed it but has directed the NYSDEC to promulgate rules largely mirroring the vetoed legislation. The Governor’s Veto Message stated that pesticides should not be regulated by legislative mandate, but instead by NYSDEC on the basis of science. The Veto Message stated that NYSDEC will act to immediately ban aerial application; most remaining uses are to be eliminated by July 1, 2021.

New York has a procedurally complex rulemaking process. To propose a rule, the moving agency must first secure approval of the State Division of the Budget. A proposed rule is then published, which must be accompanied by a series of documents assessing the impacts of the proposed rule, including a Regulatory Flexibility Analysis, a Rural Area Flexibility Analysis and a Job Impact Statement. If not finalized within a year of publication, a proposed rule expires. In fact, it often consumes most of that year to arrive and publish a final rule.  To achieve the objective of immediately eliminating aerial application, NYSDEC will need to promulgate an emergency regulation, followed by a proposed permanent rule.  The emergency rule will need to be supported by a statement justifying the need for an emergency rule.

Section 24(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”), 7 USC §136v(a), expressly authorizes states to regulate pesticides more strictly than EPA. That said, a state must still follow its own procedures and meet its own legal standards to support a rulemaking. Although EPA has concluded that chlorpyrifos does not present an unacceptable risk, that decision was arrived at in part by excluding epidemiological data developed by the Columbia University’s Center for Children’s Environmental Health and Mt. Sinai Hospital.  EPA asserts that the data is not valid, complete and reliable data unless EPA is granted access to the underlying raw data.  The study sponsors have refused to supply such information, claiming that to do so would violated subject confidentiality. New York will be free to include that study as a basis for its action without demanding the underlying data and is likely to do so.  Bottom line: even if challenged, done correctly New York’s anticipated rule is likely to be upheld.

With chlorpyrifos on its way out in two major states, it remains to be seen whether chlorpyrifos remains on the market, regardless of the outcome of the litigation.

 

EPA Seeks Public Comment on Pending Applications to Amend Existing Registrations to Add Hemp as a Target Site  

On August 23, 2019, the U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) published a notice seeking public comment on ten pending applications to amend existing registrations of agricultural pesticides to add hemp as an approved target site. See 84 Federal Register 44296 (August 23, 2019)

Interest in hemp has grown enormously since the enactment of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, colloquially known as the Farm Bill. Hemp is simply another term for the cannabis plant, also known as marijuana. The Farm Bill legalized the cultivation of and interstate commerce in hemp, defined as the cannabis plant containing less than 0.03 % THC [delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; the psychoactive constituent of cannabis]. Plants containing above 0.3% THC remain classified as an illegal Schedule 1 drug under the Controlled Substances Act.

The legalization of what is also known as industrial hemp has been greeted with great interest by the agricultural community. In some areas, such as upstate New York, hemp is seen as an alternative crop that might help save failing dairy farms. It is also seen as a natural corollary to increased cultivation of hops to meet the demands of the burgeoning craft brewery industry.

EPA has received applications to amend the registrations of ten products from three registrants:  Agro Logistic Systems, Inc. of Diamond Bar, California; Marrone Bio Innovations of Davis, California; and Hawthorne Hydroponics of Santa Rosa California. Hawthorne Hydroponics is a subsidiary of Hawthorne Gardening, itself a subsidiary of Scotts Miracle-Gro. Hawthorne is Scott’s vehicle for creating a space servicing the cannabis industry.

The ingredients in question are mostly biologic pesticides, and all hold exemptions from the requirement for a food tolerance. The proposed use patterns are within those already approved for the products in question.

EPA acknowledged that these proposed amendments do not meet the minimum standards of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”) for required public notice of pending applications. Nonetheless it stated that sufficient public interest in hemp justified seeking public comment at this initial stage, but would not continue to publicize the increasing number of applications which it expects to receive.

Comments are due September 23, 2019, and can be filed at www.regulations.gov

 

 

 

EPA Denies Chlorpyrifos Cancellation Petition; Six States File Challenge in 9thCircuit

Despite its registration having been upheld by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), the insecticide chlorpyrifos continues to face multiple challenges to its continued use. The continued EPA registration is again being challenged in Court by a collection of states, while California is moving ahead to administratively cancel all registration and New York awaits the Governor’s decision on whether to sign legislation phasing out all use.

Petition to Cancel EPA Registrations

A Petition to Cancel the registration of chlorpyrifos was filed in 2007. Its history and related litigation is recounted in the prior blog entry EPA Obtains Stay of Execution for Chlorpyrifos from 9thCircuit Court of Appeals.On March 29, 22017 EPA denied the Petition (See 82 Fed. Reg. 16581) although it expressly reserved decision on several issues. EPA stated that those issues would be addressed in registration review, due to be completed by 2022. Petitioners sought to overturn the denial by filing a Petition for Review in the 9thCircuit U.S. Court of Appeals. On April 19, 2019, the Court had ordered EPA to respond to the merits of the Petition within 90 days, making the deadline approximately July 19.

On July 24 EPA published its final order denying all aspects of the Petition.  EPA contends that the science addressing the risks of chlorpyrifos remains uncertain, and thus there is no legal basis for canceling the registrations and revoking the tolerances. One particular point of contention is epidemiological data developed by the Columbia University’s Center for Children’s Environmental Health and Mt. Sinai Hospital.  EPA asserts that the data is not valid, complete and reliable data unless EPA is granted access to the underlying raw data.  The study sponsors have refused to supply such information, claiming that to do so would violated subject confidentiality.

In response to the Petition denial, six states – California, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Vermont and Washington – have again filed a Petition for Review in the 9thCircuit U.S. Court of Appeals.

California and New York Direct Actions

Following up on its earlier announcement, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (“CDPR”) on August 14, 2019 issued cancellation notices to all California chlorpyrifos registrants. CDPR stated expressly that it was relying on five animal studies as the basis for the cancellation. It remains to be seen whether registrants or agricultural interests challenge the proposed cancellations.  On the same day CDPR also appointed an Alternatives to Chlorpyrifos Workgroup to address the ramifications of the withdrawal of chlorpyrifos from the market.

In New York, the legislature passed a bill which would in three stages eliminate all uses of chlorpyrifos by December 1, 2021. See S. 5343; A-2477B. Aerial application would be prohibited as of January 1, 2020, following which all uses except applications to apple tree trunks would end as of January 1, 2021. The apple tree use would then end December 1, 2021.

The Legislature has yet to send the passed bill to the Governor. Once the bill is transmitted to the Governor,

the bill must be signed within thirty days, or it will automatically lapse in a so-called “pocket veto.” While the New York Farm Bureau is on record opposing the legislation, the Governor has given no indication of whether he will sign the bill. If he does so, opponents would likely have no recourse. Section 24(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”), 7 USC §136v(a), expressly authorizes states to regulate pesticides more strictly than EPA. That authority leaves opponents with little ground upon which to mount any challenge to a legislative action.

Renewed Pesticide Registration Improvement Extension Act Signed Into Law  

On March 8, 2019 the President signed into law S. 438, the Pesticide Registration Improvement Extension Act of 2018. Thus the PRIA fee for service program, which had lapsed as of February 19, 2019, is back in force. Presumably anyone who submitted an application since the lapse can if they wish withdraw and refile the application. If one does so, by paying the PRIA fee they would have a guaranteed decision date for their action. More details are expected as EPA implements the new law.